Britain goes for two months without burning coal to generate electricity. In 2010 40% of the UK's electricity came from coal.
Greta Thunberg addresses world leaders at the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit, New York telling them,
"You have stolen my dreams and my childhood with your empty words...How dare you"
Following numerous public protests, demonstrations and school strikes calling for action from the government, parliament declares a Climate Emergency.
Scientists working with the Hubble Space Telescope detect molecules of buckminsterfullerene (C60) in the interstellar medium spaces between the stars
The Paris Climate Agreement was adopted by 196 countries.
Their goal is to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels.
The UN Sustainable Development Goals are agreed by 193 countries to end poverty, share wealth equally and stop climate change
Global coal consumption peaks at nearly 4000 million tons per year. Despite consumption in some countries continuing to rise the total amount of coal being burned globally is decreasing annually.
Makerspace Newcastle is established
Hackers steal thousands of emails from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in what became known as Climate Gate. These are used in an attempt to discredit the scientists and deny the evidence that carbon dioxide is increasing global temperatures.
The first Apple iPhone is released
Construction of an Earthship in Brighton's Stanmer park is completed
Highjacked planes fly into the Twin Towers in New York destroying them both
The Republic of Korea hosted the P4G Seoul Summit, the first-ever multilateral environmental Summit to be hosted by the Republic of Korea with ‘Green Recovery and 2050 Carbon Neutrality’ as its theme.
Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer suggest that humans are having such an effect on the planet that they should characterised as a geological force defining a new epoch – the Anthropocene. Crutzen suggests that this epoch may have started about two centuries ago, coinciding with James Watt’s design of the steam engine.
Mann, Bradley and Hughes publish the infamous hockey stick graph compiling 1000 years of climate data and showing a rapid acceleration of temperature increase in the 20th century.
The Good Friday Agreement creates a devolved government in Northern Ireland and power sharing between Nationalist and Unionist parties.
The Kyoto Protocol was agreed at the 3rd COP meeting of the UNFCCC. This committed 37 industrialized countries and the European Union to a target of reducing their greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5% against 1990 levels
Nelson Mandela becomes the first black president of South Africa
The worlds first smart phone was launched, the IBM Simon Communicator
Architect Mike Reynolds publishes Earthship: How to Build Your Own, a manual for building a sustainable home
The Human Genome Project began to sequence all the genes in the human body. This was completed by April 2003
The Berlin Wall collapses reopening the border between East and West Germany
Tim Berners-Lee publishes a paper that describes an 'information management system' that we now know as the internet.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC is established to further international efforts to assess the science, impacts and responses to climate change.
James Hansen, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, testifies to the US senate that the earth is warming because of carbon dioxide pollution saying “the greenhouse effect has been detected and is changing our climate now.”
Microsoft Windows version 1.0 is launched
A new allotrope of carbon is discovered, C60, also known as Buckminsterfullerene
The National Union of Mineworkers go on strike in an attempt to stop colliery closures. The industrial action continued for over a year but ultimately it did not prevent Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government closing most of the coal mines in Britain with the loss of over 20 000 jobs.
Nasa's Viking 1 successfully lands on the surface of Mars.
Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs release the first Apple computer
The first Earth Day, where an estimated 20 million Americans took part in protests against the degradation of the environment.
Neil Armstrong is the first human to step onto the surface of the Moon.
A scientific advisory panel to the United States government informs president Lyndon B Johnson that ‘pollutants have altered on global scale the carbon dioxide content of the air’ and that the impacts could be ‘deleterious from the point of view of human beings’
The intentional community Drop City was founded near Trinidad, Colarado, and widely used the geodesic construction techniques of Buckminster Fuller
Humble Oil and Refining publish a double page advert in LIFE Magazine that shows an image of Alaska’s Taku Glacier with the caption ‘Each Day Humble Supplies Enough Energy To Melt 7 Million Tons of Glacier!’.
Charles Keeling starts to monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. These observations now form part of the longest continuous record of atmospheric CO2 levels and clearly show that the increase in concentration is accelerating.
Scientists working for Humble Oil (now part of Exxon Mobil) publish evidence that burning fossil fuels is significantly increasing atmospheric CO2 levels.
Calder Hall, the world's first nuclear power station to export electricity on a commercial scale to a public grid, starts generating electricity.
The first synthetic diamonds are produced by Tracey Hall working with General Electric in Sweden.
Rosalind Franklin creates Photograph 51 an x-ray diffraction pattern of DNA that revealed its structure
An American aircraft dropped a nuclear bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, killing 75000 people
Guy Callendar, a Met Office scientist, estimates that ‘man has added 150000 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere’ and connects this to his observations that global temperatures are rising.
(Some) Women get the right to vote in UK elections
Kane Tanake, the oldest living person, was born.
The largest diamond ever found, The Cullinan Diamond, is discovered in a mine in South Africa. It weighed more than half a kilogram
Swedish scientist, Svante Arhenius, makes a connection between increased combustion of coal and rising levels of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere.
Joseph Swan demonstrates his electric light bulb using a carbonised filament at the Lit and Phil, Newcastle
Chemist Jacobus van’t Hoff, future inaugural winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, and chemist Joseph Le Bel independently of each other proposed a three-dimensional model for the structure of a class of carbon compounds. Expansions of this led to a new science of stereochemistry, the study of the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a chemical compound.
Franz Friedrich Wilhelm San-Galli patents his design for a radiator, a major contribution to modern central heating systems
Angier Marsh Perkins is granted a UK patent for the Perkins Steam Heater, a closed hot water system that he developed for domestic use
Smithson Tenant publishes the findings of his experiments showing that diamonds are formed of carbon.
Major Hayman Rooke's describes what is now known as The Major Oak in his book The Oaks of Sherwood Forest. The tree is thought to be over 1000 years old.
Antoine -Laurent Lavoisier names and describes carbon as a material
French chemist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier recognises carbon as an element and gives it its name from the latin 'carbo'meaning charcoal.
Matthew Boulton installs central heating in his home Soho House, BIrmingham
James Watt’s first commercial steam engine is put into operation at Bloomfield Colliery in Tipton. It is around 75% more efficient than other designs.
John Harrison tests his design for the H-4 marine chronometer allowing sailors to accurately know their longitude at sea
Scottish chemist Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide
The first practical steam engine, designed by Thomas Newcomen, is put into operation at Coneygree Coal Works, marking a key event at the start of the industrial revolution
Abraham Darby develops a method of producing cast iron in a blast furnace fuelled by coke rather than charcoal.
large graphite deposits are discovered in grey knots mine cumbria - which are used to make the first graphic pencils